Grammar, Chapter III: Verbs

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Grammar, Chapter III: Verbs

Post by Gerald Ruze on Mon Jan 27, 2014 3:02 pm

All Gerenian verbs are regular.

I. ACCIDENTS

1. GRAMMATICAL PERSONS

The grammatical persons are 1st, 2nd, and 3rd.

2. GRAMMATICAL NUMBERS

Singular and plural.

3. MOODS

Gerenian has three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative.

3.1. INDICATIVE MOOD
The indicative mood is used for factual statements and positive beliefs.

3.2. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The subjunctive mood expresses an imagined or desired action in the past, present, or future.

3.3. IMPERATIVE MOOD
The imperative mood expresses direct commands, requests, and prohibitions.

4. TENSES

Gerenian has six tenses: present, present continuous, preterite (past), future, present perfect, and past perfect.

5. VOICES

There are two voices: active, and passive.

5.1. ACTIVE VOICE
When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.

5.2. PASSIVE VOICE
When the subject is the patient, target, or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.


Last edited by Gerald Ruze on Tue Jun 30, 2015 6:55 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Re: Grammar, Chapter III: Verbs

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Jun 30, 2015 2:03 pm

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns are included in verbs as suffixes when these verbs are conjugated.

Io - I
Ni - you (singular)
Ja - she
Je - he
Ji - it, they
Ios - we
Nis - you (plural)
Jai - they (female)
Jei - they (male)

Ji is utilized when the gender of a noun is unknown. It can refer to nouns in either singular or plural form.

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Re: Grammar, Chapter III: Verbs

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Jun 30, 2015 6:59 pm

III. CONJUGATION

1. INTRODUCTION

Actions in active voice can be expressed in two ways:

  • with the subject being referred to with a pronoun;
  • with the subject being referred to with its name or other additional information, but not with a pronoun.

In the first case, endings are used. The suffix -in of the infinitive is replaced by one or more endings, depending on the grammatical tense. The explanation of verb conjugations will be made for the first case only.
In affirmative sentences, one or more suffixes and prefixes may be added to the root of the verb. In order to make questions, the order of these components is altered: the personal pronoun is put first, then the verb conjugated. For negative sentences, the prefix dis- is used.

2. CONJUGATION TABLES:

The following are conjugation tables for all Gerenian verbs, divided by grammatical tense. Each table has an example verb but, since all verbs are regular, the modifications indicated apply for all verbs. The ending -in corresponds to the infinitive form of the verb, which is dropped as the verb is conjugated.

2.1. PRESENT TENSE
The conjugation tables details the first conjugation form: the infinitive ending -in is dropped, then replaced by the personal pronoun.
Let's see the verb lesin (to talk, speak) as an example:

Affirmative:
lesio (I speak)
lesni (you speak)
lesja (she speaks)
lesje (he speaks)
lesji (it speaks, they speak)
lesios (we speak)
lesnis (you speak)

Negative:
dislesio (I don't speak)
dislesni (you don't speak)
dislesja (she doesn't speak)
dislesje (he doesn't speak)
dislesji (it doesn't speak, they don't speak)
dislesios (we don't speak)
dislesnis (you don't speak)

Interrogative:
io les? (Do I speak?)
ni les? (Do you speak?)
ja les? (Does she speak?)
je les? (Does he speak?)
ji les? (Does it speak?, Do they speak?)
ios les? (Do we speak?)
nis les? (Do you speak?)

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Re: Grammar, Chapter III: Verbs

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Jun 30, 2015 7:15 pm

2.2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Verbs in present continuous consist of the root of the verb, followed by the personal pronoun as suffix, and -ras as ending. Some verbs require the suffix to be -aras, to make pronunciation easier. Examples of both endings can be found below.

Example 1: kisorin (to call)

Affirmative:
io - kisorras (I am calling)
ni - kisorras (you are calling)
ja - kisorras (she is calling)
je - kisorras (he is calling)
ji - kisorras (it is calling, they are calling)
ios - kisorras (we are calling)
nis - kisorras (you are calling)

Negative:
io - diskisorras (I am not calling)
ni - diskisorras (you are not calling)
ja - diskisorras (she is not calling)
je - diskisorras (he is not calling)
ji - diskisorras (it is not calling, they are not calling)
ios - diskisorras (we are not calling)
nis - diskisorras (you are not calling)

Interrogative:
io - kisorras? (am I calling?)
ni - kisorras? (are you calling?)
ja - kisorras? (is she calling?)
je - kisorras? (is he calling?)
ji - kisorras? (is it calling?, are they calling?)
ios - kisorras? (are we calling?)
nis - kisorras? (are you calling?)

Example 2: seletin (to walk)
Verbs which root ends in either -l, -s or -t may have an extra a added between the personal pronoun and the -ras suffix.

Affirmative:
io - seletaras (I am walking)
ni - seletaras (you are walking)
ja - seletaras (she is walking)
je - seletaras (he is walking)
ji - seletaras (it is walking, they are walking)
ios - seletaras (we are walking)
nis - seletaras (you are walking)

Negative:
io - disseletaras (I am not walking)
ni - disseletaras (you are not walking)
ja - disseletaras (she is not walking)
je - disseletaras (he is not walking)
ji - disseletaras (it is not walking, they are not walking)
ios - disseletaras (we are not walking)
nis - disseletaras (you are not walking)

Interrogative:
io - seletaras? (am I walking?)
ni - seletaras? (are you walking?)
ja - seletaras? (is she walking?)
je - seletaras? (is he walking?)
ji - seletaras? (is it walking?, are they walking?)
ios - seletaras? (are we walking?)
nis - seletaras? (are you walking?)

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