Grammar, Chapter I: Articles

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Grammar, Chapter I: Articles

Post by Gerald Ruze on Mon Oct 28, 2013 1:22 pm

Two kinds of articles exist in Gerenian language: definite (er) and indefinite (od).

I. DEFINITE ARTICLE

1. FORM AND PRONUNCIATION

1.1. Er |ɛɾ| is utilised as equivalent to English the.
1.2. E' |ə| is utilised before a word which starts with r.

2. USAGE

2.1. Er is invariable regarding gender and number, and is used with countable nouns in both singular and plural, and with uncountable nouns.
Er türe (the door), Er tóuli (the bridges), Er mer (the water).

2.2. It is used when the listener/reader knows the person or thing being referred to:
2.2.1. Because it has been previously mentioned:
Pomegjel od'elskase, ŷéer Galhețes balnes. Er elska - atires, sieranes. (He met a girl last Saturday. The girl is tall and blonde).
2.2.2. Or because the person or thing being referred to is clearly specified:
Ha er fular, în del astul? (What's the object in that can?)
2.2.3. Or when it is clear by context which person or thing is being referred to:
Blaŷ Maria est? Ja - v'er sirilar. (Where's Maria? She's in the kitchen [the one of the house]).

2.3. Before a noun followed by a proper name:
Er méer Terad (The planet Earth).

2.4. With names of professions, if preceded by a proper name:
Azrel, er ärkelțitör (Azrel, the archaeologist).

2.5. Before names of places:
2.5.1. Including a countable noun: snir, resuy, stat:

2.5.2. Composed of a noun followed by an adjective (in English, names including the preposition of):

2.6. With superlatives when utilised attributively or adverbially:
Estdel er penseĵiĵful, ha tozliol-litinea. (It was the best I could get.)
Del - er penseĵiĵ sunal p'er aliam jies. (This is the best song of their album).


2.7. Before adjectives used as nouns to indicate an entire class:
Er vesezted. (The blind). Er palinki. (The rich).


Last edited by Gerald Ruze on Sun Feb 07, 2016 4:13 pm; edited 2 times in total

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Re: Grammar, Chapter I: Articles

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Oct 29, 2013 12:57 pm

3. OMISSIONS OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

3.1. The definite article is not used with abstract nouns when utilised in a general sense, but when they are limited:
Kestția - od fular birsiled. (Freedom is a preciated thing.) Er kestția, ha gesji, disest das. (The freedom they have isn't such.)

3.2. Er is not used with materials and food:
Caral - peled semharbi nefá. (Coal is very much used here.)

3.3. It is not used before plural nouns when used in a general sense:
Tozlni litinea viraleese, v'er dorau. (You can get magazines at the newsagent's.), and not Tozlni litinea er viraleese, v'er dorau.

3.4. It is used neither before proper nouns nor before words like Flus (River), Noreg (Lake), Kap (Cape), or Tar (Mount):
Ilbjel trom Lóndon. (He came from London.), and not Ilbjel trom er Lóndon.

3.5. It is not used before names of places such as:
3.5.1. Continents;
3.5.2. Countries, States;
3.5.3. Political divisions (departments, provinces, et cetera);
3.5.4. Cities and towns;
3.5.5. Islands and mountains alone;
3.5.6. Rivers and lakes;
3.5.7. Streets.

3.6. Before titles followed by proper names, er is not used:
Brežagtör Ruze; Misake Lines

3.7. It is also omitted before names of languages:
Ezbi, iernjaras engrese fransesu. (Now she's learning French.), and not Ezbi, iernjaras ere engrese fransesu.

3.8. With names of buildings, when thinking rather in the function or use made of them:
Maria dir'at sokla, lans gahli. (Maria goes to school everyday [to learn])., and not Maria dir'at er sokla, lans gahli.
[i]Ŷéer ni dirras'at esklas? (When are you going to church?
[to pray]), and not Ŷéer ni dirras'at er esklas?

3.9. It is not used with means of transport:
Ni dirras mit darver val mit oste? (Are you going by train or by car?), and not Ni dirras mit er darver val mit er oste?


Last edited by Gerald Ruze on Sun Feb 07, 2016 4:27 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Re: Grammar, Chapter I: Articles

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Oct 29, 2013 1:16 pm

II. INDEFINITE ARTICLE

4. FORM AND PRONUNCIATION

4.1. Od |ʌd| is utilised as equivalent to English a (an).
4.2. O' |ʌ| is utilised before a word which starts with 'd'.

5. USAGE

5.1. Od is invariable regarding gender. It declines to ode when in the accusative case.

5.2. Od is used with countable, singular nouns, when the listener does not know what person or thing is being mentioned:
Od basarn. (A pen). Téeleztiosel ode zilme, ŷée'r mesern balnes. (We saw a film last night.)

5.3. Od is also used before names of professions, religions, classes, nationalities:
Je - ode Katólikese. (He's a Catholic). Od franske ilbel. (A Frenchman came).

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Re: Grammar, Chapter I: Articles

Post by Gerald Ruze on Tue Oct 29, 2013 1:57 pm

6. OMISSIONS OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

6.1. Od is never used:
6.1.1. Before countable, plural nouns:
Od nemere. (A books.)
6.1.2. Before uncountable nouns:
Od mer. (A water.)

6.2. Od is not used if the noun is a title, profession or rank which can be held by one person only:
Rabetjel rimu sevagtör. (He acted as Chairman.), and not Rabetjel rimu od sevagtör.
Aitarjel Marelkese, ŷéer 1956. (He became King in 1956.)
, and not Aitarjel od Marelkese, ŷéer 1956.

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